Farming the Future: Unveiling the Power of Molecular Plant Farming for Alternative Proteins

Imagine a near future where you savor a delicious carton of ice cream made with dairy sourced "directly from a farm." However, this farm doesn't boast bucolic settings, rolling hills, and happy cows. Nor is it sourced from the darker side of farming — the concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) crammed with cows and mechanical milking machines.

Instead, this farm offers something entirely different. It teems with meticulously engineered plants designed to produce customized ingredients, including the whey and casein proteins in your ice cream.

Welcome to molecular plant farming.

A farm void of animals, yet filled with plants capable of 'churning' out dairy proteins, among other animal-based proteins.

Molecular Plant Farming: Harnessing The Power of Plants

This year, molecular plant farming was recognized by the Good Food Institute as a potential "fourth pillar" of alternative protein production, alongside the three pillars of cultivated, fermented, and plant-based proteins.

Molecular plant farming is a novel technique that uses genetically engineered plants to produce custom-made proteins. This process can include the insertion of modified DNA into a plant genome, or simply introducing the gene into the plant for a short time period without altering the chromosome of the plant. Either strategy results in instructing the plant to produce the desired protein. The engineered plants are then grown conventionally, using sunlight and soil — either in a field or, more likely, in a vertical farming structure — establishing a unique fusion of traditional and innovative farming techniques.

Molecular farming steps | Source: Protein Directory.

The ultimate goal? To harvest these plants and extract their target molecules which can be used as innovative food ingredients. These ingredients have the potential to transform our diets and the food industry by offering new sources of protein and other nutrients.

Advantages and Challenges: Molecular Plant Farming as the “Fourth Pillar.”

Molecular farming may be a hot topic now, but it isn't new. The first successful proof of concept emerged nearly three decades ago when in 1986, transgenic tobacco and sunflowers were utilised to produce human growth hormone (HGH). Since then, hundreds of different proteins have been successfully produced in plants.

Molecular farming has evolved over time, quietly yet consistently heading towards a future where it may serve as a formidable alternative to traditional protein sources.

Imagining a Molecular Farm | Source: Canva

Molecular plant farming offers potential benefits such as:

  • Lower costs and scalability: Cultivation of plants in open fields, vertical farming structures, or greenhouses is less expensive and more scalable than utilising bioreactors to generate proteins. Each plant is essentially a mini bioreactor; scaling up is achieved by growing more plants.
  • Diversification and adaptability: Many different types of plants may be utilised, including tobacco, potato, tomato, alfalfa, safflower, carrot, lettuce, strawberry, moss, duckweed, maize, wheat, and rice.

Some challenges include:

  • Containment: Open-field cultivation may make it more difficult to control the quality of the product and reduce spreading outside of confined areas. Examples of failed containment exist.
  • Downstream Processing Costs: Some studies show that processing (isolating and extracting the desired ingredient) may be the most expensive and time-intensive part of the process.
  • Public Acceptance: GMOs have faced a lot of controversy and skepticism since they were introduced to the public. Consumer acceptance and education will be key in establishing molecular farming as a viable “fourth pillar.”

In Conclusion

The journey is long, and many challenges lie ahead, but molecular farming, the "fourth pillar" of alternative proteins, is a field teeming with possibilities. And it may forever change our perception of what it means to “farm.”

Stay tuned to this space as we delve deeper into this captivating topic, exploring the opportunities and challenges molecular farming presents. On June 8th, we’ll have a conversation with three innovators in the space: Amos Palfreyman, CO-Founder and CEO at Miruku, Catalina Jones, Chief of Staff & Sustainability at Moolec Science, and Kathleen Hefferon, Ph.D., Forte Protein. Sign up today!

Check out other companies focused on molecular farming at Protein Directory — including Mozza, Nobell Foods, Tiamet Sciences, Bright Biotech, PoLoPo, Greenovation Protein, Veloz Bio, and Asterix Foods!

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Miruku is a New Zealand-based company that is applying its molecular farming process to program plant cells to be mini-factories for producing dairy proteins and other molecules, like fats and sugars. The company is modifying plant cells to have them produce dairy proteins such as casein and whey. The company claims that its technology is cost-effective and environmentally friendly by consuming fewer resources through biology. Miruku's proteins can be used to create real cheese and yogurt without cows.
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Moolec Science
Moolec Science is a global company that focuses on developing real animal proteins in plants using molecular farming. The company uses a proprietary platform that allows it to produce and harvest a complete spectrum of complex animal proteins in plants sustainably. The company claims that its technology is scalable and affordable by using plants as small factories producing animal proteins with sun and water. Moolec Science's proteins can be used for various applications, such as dairy alternatives, egg alternatives, meat alternatives, and hybrid products.
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Forte Protein
Forte Protein is a US-based company that can produce a complete spectrum of plant-based proteins that are identical to animal proteins. The company uses a proprietary expression system to produce bio-identical animal proteins such as ovalbumin and lactoferrin within plants like kale or lettuce. The company claims that its technology is faster, more affordable, and more authentic than other production systems. Forte Protein's proteins can be used as ingredients in various products, such as meat replacements, energy drinks, supplements, gels, cheese, and milk alternatives.
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